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What are the different types of male and female infertility?
Infertility can broadly be categorized into two types: • Primary Infertility: It is the inability to conceive by a woman who desires a child and is in a sexual relationship for at least 5 years during which she has not taken any contraceptives. • Secondary Infertility: It is the inability to conceive by a woman even after a gap of 5 years from the birth of her first child during which she has not taken any contraceptives. Primary or secondary infertility could be caused by different infertility issues in male, female, or both the partners. Relationship between diabetes and male infertility Diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) may not necessarily lead to infertility in men. However, certain conditions associated with male infertility have a higher occurrence in diabetics than in the generic population, particularly in patients having diabetes for long or those who have not managed diabetes well. These conditions include: • Erectile Dysfunction: Inability to achieve or sustain erections is often a condition related with diabetes in many patients. Long standing or poorly managed diabetes leads to nerve damage and decreased blood circulation that gives rise to erectile dysfunction. Increased blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels are also risk factors of sexual dysfunction. • Poor Sperm Quality: Diabetes can negatively impact sperm quality, though in itself it does not cause infertility or affect the ability of sperm to move towards the egg. • Impaired Ejaculation: Nerves in the penis can get damaged due to diabetic neuropathy and cause ejaculation troubles. • Retrograde Ejaculation: Diabetic neuropathy can result in retrograde ejaculation that is a condition of the inability of nerves to control the bladder muscles from closing at the time of ejaculation. This causes the semen to flow back into the bladder instead of flowing out through the penis. Retrograde ejaculation can hamper the chances of conception for a couple.
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