What are the different types of bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes unusual and intense shifts in mood, activity levels and the ability to function normally. It is a spectrum of disorders with three specific subtypes. Below you will find the different kinds of bipolar disorder that have been recognized based on their individual symptoms: • Bipolar 1 Disorder: Bipolar 1 disorder is diagnosed when at least one manic episode has occurred in a person’s life. During mania, high energy and elevated mood are experienced, accompanied by unusual behavior that disrupts day-to-day life. Typically, the manic episodes last at least a week, and in some cases, the symptoms are so extreme that urgent hospitalization may be necessary. Depressive episodes too are seen in the majority of cases for this type of bipolar disorder and last at least two weeks. Sometimes, periods of depression with mixed features (manic and depressive symptoms at the same time) are also experienced. • Bipolar 2 Disorder: Bipolar 2 disorder is characterized by a pattern of depressive and hypomanic episodes, and absence of manic periods. Hypomania is less severe than the full extremities of mania, lacks psychotic features and does not commonly interfere with social or occupational life. Bipolar II disorder is harder to detect as the hypomanic episodes may seem like periods of increased activity and high productivity. • Cyclothymic Disorder: Comparatively a mild mood disorder, cyclothymia or bipolar 3 disorder involves short periods of hypomania and mild depression. The high and low mood swings are not long or intense enough to be clinically diagnosed as manic or major depressive episodes. • Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar or Related Disorders: This category includes bipolar disorder symptoms that do not meet the criteria of other types of bipolar disorder.