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Malnutrition is a condition of nutritional deficiency or excess in the body. During pregnancy, the unborn child is more prone to undernourishment than overnutrition. Undernourishment can occur in babies due to a number of reasons, both related and unrelated to pregnancy. Maternal factors like the mother’s nutrition level during pregnancy and her body size could play a role. Babies of young mothers who are not fully developed tend to have low birth weight. Similarly, iodine deficiency in expectant mothers can cause brain damage and other forms of severe physical and mental issues in the offspring. Low food consumption can lead to protein energy malnutrition and eventually kwashiorkor, marasmus and other kinds of protein–energy malnutrition. Inadequate sanitation conditions, unsafe water and insufficient hygiene also can contribute to malnutrition and diseases in children. Low household income, mother’s illiteracy, higher number of siblings and less supplementation of diet are other causes of acute and chronic malnutrition. Disorders like diarrhea, HIV, measles and other infections lead to reduced nutrient absorption, poor food intake, increased metabolic needs and direct nutrient loss.